Land Administration (Spatial Information Systems)

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Data acquisition for millions of spatial units — based on evidence from the field in participatory approaches — is an enormous operation. The organization of this process requires enormous amounts of human-supported transactions related to logistics and case management - all based on geographic information.

Land Administration and Information

During field work, a check on the completeness of the data acquisition needs to be performed in an easy way. Tools, transport, paper, imagery, awareness campaigns, local support from local authorities if needed in co-management with traditional authorities , and grass-root data collectors combined with professional expertise has to be organized at the right place and time. Updates and changes may concern the following: parties and their attributes, rights, restrictions and responsibilities and related attributes, basis administrative units and related attributes, and spatial units and related attributes.

Common transactions are buying and selling, establishment of mortgage, or rights for example encumbrance, usufruct, but may be also tenancy. A very specific transaction is the inclusion of the result of spatial planning, e.

More generic process-related modules Stubkjaer, et al. Standardization can also make it easier to monitor the progress of global indicators relating to land tenure security. Process information is information on who has to do what in approving the transaction. LADM has roles already included as well a series of dates for interaction with processes — but the LADM Edition I does not include Land Administration processes for initial data acquisition, data maintenance, and data publication.

Transactions require source documents providing the basis for changing and updating the data in the database — from one consistent state to another. Attributes in all classes can be subject to change. The blockchain is a secure mechanism to handle and store transactions in a distributed ledger environment. Once a transaction has taken place, it cannot be altered or erased from existence. A transaction is irreversible. An additional advantage of blockchain use is that not only the transaction itself, but also the history of transactions, is safely captured, making the data immutable and hence providing trust by definition.

A blockchain is transparent. That means: everyone who would like to see the transaction is able to do so and verify the transaction.

This makes the process of value exchange visible, so normal people can see any injustice. FIG is also involved in the use of blockchain. Smart contracts are contracts whose terms are recorded in a computer language instead of legal language. Smart contracts can be automatically executed by a computing system, such as a suitable distributed ledger system. The smart contract is the layer that fully utilizes the potential of blockchain technology. Smart contracts contain the computer code that executes the contract.

Knowledge on geometric accuracy should result in quality labels identifying the relative and absolute accuracy of geometric data. This is relevant for adjustment later on and the integration of data from different sources collected with different instruments and tools in different approaches. But land administration is not only about geometric data.

Needed functionalities should be deployable on a single device, i.

Bibliographic Information

Devices supporting these functions could also be useful for inspections, for fieldwork related to building and construction permits, for cadastral maintenance, etc. Land data collected on many devices could deliver results in formats based on operational standards.

Legacy data may be located and stored all over a country in administrative legal and spatial survey archives. The paper documents in those archives often have a legal meaning. After digitizing the documents, they are not yet archived in a unified manner compliant with international standards: this applies to both the archives with the maps as well as the archives with the deeds. Having a digital archive is one of the preconditions for e-services to function optimally.

Stages of digital archiving may be distinguished: protection of the existing archives; scanning and indexation; quality improvement of the archives; optimization of internal consistency; and integration of the digital archive in workflows. Interoperability, data sharing and data integration is needed in development of land administration. External links to other databases supporting information infrastructure deployment , e. Data sharing means the data is collected once and used many times through establishing linkages with SDIs, for example.

Information

Duplicative efforts in data collection and maintenance can be avoided. Services must be able to support operations in an internet-connected environment as well as a disconnected environment, as internet is not reliable in many areas. Services may support declaration of land rights online by the rightholders themselves. Quality assurance procedures are required in these cases. Also, for maintenance, services can be developed.

Further applications may support reporting land disputes and conflicts, requests for information, publication of land data, provision of products and services, land right formalization, map renovation and quality improvement, and digital archiving. A fiscal registry or database is supposed to record legal, physical, geometric, economic, and environmental characteristics of the property units, which are subject to immovable property valuation and taxation.

A land administration infrastructure is required to link fiscal registries with other public registries e. While most developing economies are trying to establish Land Administration Systems, some developed jurisdictions are undergoing significant change in terms of their Land Administration Systems. The New South Wales state government in Australia privatized the operation of its land registry in The South Australian state government also privatized it land registry earlier in Now, Victorians await on whether their lawmakers will follow suit.

While rare, privately-operated land registries do exist elsewhere. A private operator administers the buying, selling, and subdivision of properties in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba. In other jurisdictions, there have been unsuccessful privatization attempts. And last year, the province of Nova Scotia assessed the prospect of a privatized titling office and concluded there would be no considerable gain from it. The UK Conservative government in also examined this idea but did not go ahead with privatization. This was primarily due to a lack of support from the property industry and a fear of public backlash.

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OGC White Paper on Land Administration

There are risks and opportunities that is PPP-based land registries bring. These include increased fees, a natural monopoly, banks requiring title insurance for purchasing properties, risks to the integrity of land registration processes and property information, depreciating existing skillsets in the title offices that are hard to source, and the prospect of jobs moving elsewhere and even overseas. At the same time, PPP-based land administration provides an opportunity to harness technologies that transform land administration into faster and more automated processes while removing intermediary fees and reducing red tape.

Using technologies like blockchain, titles and other documents can be encrypted and protected in digital transactions. This challenges the need for lawyers to check documents, financial institutions to prove money exchange, insurance companies to back the title, and title offices to register the transactions.

Consumer-grade technologies such as drones, 3D scanners and smartphones also make it easier for the public to collect land information. This will challenge regulated professions such as land surveying. These professions need to be rethought in a technology-driven society where land data collection becomes accessible to everyone Kalantari and Jeffers The development of a land administration framework is challenging because it has to support a wide variety of regulatory and policy environments. Interoperability between underlying technologies and systems is key in providing the necessary flexibility.

There is an impetus to guide developing nations in a programmatic way to establish cost-effective, interoperable land administration, to upgrade current manual processes Stubkjaer, et al. Key is the ability of proposed land administration frameworks to support the regulatory and policy environments that are often unique to individual jurisdictions and nations. This section provides an overview of needs and requirements discussed by an inventory by an international group of experts during the LADM Workshop in Delft, The Netherlands in March and in Zagreb, Croatia in April Some of these needs recommend an extension of LADM — it is relevant in this context that adding complexity to LADM is to be avoided as much as possible.

Commitment of personnel representing professional organizations is important here of course. The functionality and options for use of LADM should be better known and communicated.

LADM is a flexible standard that can meet local requirements. It is not a prescriptive standard — it is descriptive. LADM can also be described as a land administration expert language. It describes the common denominator in land administration worldwide. The rich functionality of LADM should be better and further promoted. UML instance level diagrams are very useful in communicating this functionality.

Standards like the LADM are crucial to jump-start new initiatives and are connecting top-down and bottom-up projects. It is very important that there is awareness of this at policy level. Policies should support the implementation of standards particularly when such standards are globally agreed. Common vision on use and applications of standards in land administration.


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