Lessons on Timothy, Titus and Philemon (Lessons on the New Testament Book 14)
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The best value in digital Bible study. Find out more here. He is very dear to me but even dearer to you, both as a fellow man and as a brother in the Lord. I will pay it back—not to mention that you owe me your very self. All rights reserved worldwide. You'll get this book and many others when you join Bible Gateway Plus.
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Try it free for 30 days. Study This. Titus 3 Hebrews 1. Philemon Onesimus means useful. Bible Gateway Recommends. He knows several of Paul's epistles, and values them highly for their content; the same can be said of the Epistle to the Hebrews, with which he is well acquainted. Although these writings obviously possess for Clement considerable significance, he never refers to them as authoritative 'Scripture'. Within the New Testament itself, there is a reference to at least some of the works of Paul as Scripture.
He [Paul] writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction. The reference to, presumably the Septuagint, as the "other" Scripture denotes that the author of 2 Peter regarded, at least, the works of Paul that had been written by his time as Scripture.
It is difficult to determine the date of composition; commentaries and reference books have placed 2 Peter in almost every decade from AD 60 to Marcion of Sinope , a bishop of Asia Minor who went to Rome and was later excommunicated for his views , was the first of record to propose a definitive, exclusive, unique list of Christian scriptures, compiled sometime between — AD. In his book Origin of the New Testament  Adolf von Harnack argued that Marcion viewed the church at this time as largely an Old Testament church one that "follows the Testament of the Creator-God " without a firmly established New Testament canon, and that the church gradually formulated its New Testament canon in response to the challenge posed by Marcion.
About this letter
Marcion rejected the theology of the Old Testament entirely and regarded the God depicted there as an inferior being. In the Antithesis , he claimed the theology of the Old Testament was incompatible with the teaching of Jesus regarding God and morality. Marcion believed that Jesus had come to liberate mankind from the authority of the God of the Old Testament, and to reveal the superior God of goodness and mercy, whom he called the Father. Paul and Luke were the only Christian authors to find favor with Marcion, though his versions of these differed from those later accepted by mainstream Christianity also termed Proto-orthodox Christianity.
Marcion created a definite group of books which he regarded as fully authoritative, displacing all others. These comprised ten of the Pauline epistles without the Pastorals and a gospel similar to that of Luke. It is uncertain whether he edited these books, purging them of what did not accord with his views, or that his versions represented a separate textual tradition. Marcion's gospel, called simply the Gospel of the Lord , differed from the Gospel of Luke by lacking any passages that connected Jesus with the Old Testament.
He believed that the god of Israel, who gave the Torah to the Israelites , was an entirely different god from the Supreme God who sent Jesus and inspired the New Testament. Marcion termed his collection of Pauline epistles the Apostolikon. These also differed from the versions accepted by later Christian Orthodoxy.
Come, Follow Me, 10//3, Sunday School Lesson and Printable
Marcion's list and theology were rejected as heretical by the early church; however, he forced other Christians to consider which texts were canonical and why. He spread his beliefs widely; they became known as Marcionism. A modern divine Ferguson quotes Tertullian 's De praescriptione haereticorum Since Marcion separated the New Testament from the Old, he is necessarily subsequent to that which he separated, inasmuch as it was only in his power to separate what was previously united.
Having been united previous to its separation, the fact of its subsequent separation proves the subsequence also of the man who effected the separation. Other scholars propose that it was Melito of Sardis who originally coined the phrase Old Testament ,  which is associated with Supersessionism.
Robert M. Price argues that the evidence that the early church fathers, such as Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp, knew of the Pauline epistles is unclear, and concludes that Marcion was the first person to collect Paul's writings to various churches and to treat ten Pauline letters, some of them Marcion's own compositions, together with an earlier version of Luke not the Gospel of Luke as now known :. But the first collector of the Pauline Epistles had been Marcion.
No one else we know of would be a good candidate, certainly not the essentially fictive Luke, Timothy, and Onesimus.
And Marcion, as Burkitt and Bauer show, fills the bill perfectly. In the mid-2nd century, Justin Martyr whose writings span the period from c. In Justin's works, distinct references are found to Romans , 1 Corinthians, Galatians , Ephesians , Colossians , and 2 Thessalonians , and possible ones to Philippians , Titus , and 1 Timothy.
When Jesus went down in the water, fire was kindled in the Jordan; and when he came up from the water, the Holy Spirit came upon him.
The apostles of our Christ wrote this. Tatian was converted to Christianity by Justin Martyr on a visit to Rome around and, after much instruction, returned to Syria in to reform the church there. At some point, likely around ,  he composed a single harmonized "Gospel" by weaving the contents of the gospels of Matthew , Mark , Luke , and John together along with events present in none of these texts.
The narrative mainly follows the chronology of John. This is called the Diatessaron " Harmony Through Four" and it became the official Gospel text of the Syraic church, centered in Edessa. Irenaeus of Lyon referred directly to a defined set of four gospels the Tetramorph , c. Irenaeus declared that the four he espoused were the four "Pillars of the Church": "it is not possible that there can be either more or fewer than four" he stated, presenting as logic the analogy of the four corners of the earth and the four winds 3.
His image, taken from Ezekiel 1, or Revelation —10, of God's throne borne by four creatures with four faces—"the four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and the four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle"—equivalent to the "four-formed" gospel, is the origin of the conventional symbols of the Evangelists: lion Mark , ox Luke , eagle John , man Matthew. Irenaeus was ultimately successful in declaring that the four gospels collectively, and exclusively these four, contained the truth.
By reading each gospel in light of the others, Irenaeus made of John a lens through which to read Matthew , Mark and Luke. Based on the arguments Irenaeus made in support of only four authentic gospels, some interpreters deduce that the fourfold Gospel must have still been a novelty in Irenaeus's time. Irenaeus apparently quotes from 21 of the New Testament books and names the author he thought wrote the text. He does think that the letter to the Corinthians, known now as 1 Clement , was of great worth but does not seem to believe that Clement of Rome was the one author Book 3 , Chapter 3, Verse 3 and seems to have the same lower status as Polycarp's Epistle Book 3 , Chapter 3, Verse 3.
He does refer to a passage in the Shepherd of Hermas as scripture Mandate 1 or First Commandment , but this has some consistency problems on his part. Hermas taught that Jesus was not himself a divine being, but a virtuous man who was subsequently filled with the Holy Spirit and adopted as the Son   a doctrine called adoptionism. But Irenaeus's own work, including his citing of the Gospel of John Jn.
In the late 4th century Epiphanius of Salamis died Panarion 29 says the Nazarenes had rejected the Pauline epistles and Irenaeus Against Heresies Acts records a rumor that Paul aimed to subvert the Old Testament against this rumor see Romans , Between and , both internal and external forces caused Proto-orthodox Christianity to begin to systematize both its doctrines and its view of revelation.
Much of the systemization came about as a defense against the diverse Early Christian viewpoints that competed with emerging Proto-Orthodoxy. The early years of this period witnessed the rise of several strong movements of faith later deemed heretical by the church in Rome: Marcionism , Gnosticism and Montanism. Marcion may have been the first to have a clearly defined list of New Testament books, though this question of who came first is still debated. The expansion phase of the New Testament canon thus could have begun in response to Marcion's proposed limited canon. The Muratorian fragment  is the earliest known example of a defined list of mostly New Testament books.
The third book of the Gospel is that according to Luke The fourth As for the Epistles of Paul To the Corinthians first, to the Ephesians second, to the Philippians third, to the Colossians fourth, to the Galatians fifth, to the Thessalonians sixth, to the Romans seventh We receive only the apocalypses of John and Peter , though some of us are not willing that the latter be read in church. But Hermas wrote the Shepherd very recently And therefore it ought indeed to be read; but it cannot be read publicly to the people in church.
This is evidence that, perhaps as early as , there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the book NT, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them.
Titus Study Guide
Clement of Alexandria c. He seemed "practically unconcerned about canonicity. To him, inspiration is what mattered.
He did, however, prefer the four church gospels to all others, although he supplemented them freely with apocryphal gospels. There were those who rejected the Gospel of John and possibly also Revelation and the Epistles of John as either not apostolic or as written by the Gnostic Cerinthus or as not compatible with the Synoptic Gospels.
Epiphanius of Salamis called these people the Alogi , because they rejected the Logos doctrine of John and because he claimed they were illogical. There may have also been a dispute over the doctrine of the Paraclete.
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